Herbivorous, feeding on roots and seeds, grasses and herbaceous plants, berries, and cultivated grains.
In nature, from 10 to over 20 years.
From the age of 2 years old, mating and egg laying take place between February and June depending on the region. The female incubates 5-6 eggs for 28 days. The fledglings’ first flight takes place 63-86 days later.
Foxes, skuas, seagulls, common raven and birds of prey among others.